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英语辅音音变规律

前缀 com-

  1. com-
  2. con-
  3. col-
  4. cor-
  5. co-

含义

  1. together 共同,一起

  2. intensive 加强语气

词源学 com-

word-forming element usually meaning "with, together," from Latin com, archaic form of classical Latin cum "together, together with, in combination," from PIE *kom- "beside, near, by, with" (compare Old English ge-, German ge-). The prefix in Latin sometimes was used as an intensive.

Before vowels and aspirates, it is reduced to co-; before -g-, it is assimilated to cog- or con-; before -l-, assimilated to col-; before -r-, assimilated to cor-; before -c-, -d-, -j-, -n-, -q-, -s-, -t-, and -v-, it is assimilated to con-, which was so frequent that it often was used as the normal form.

词汇

commit ( com 加强语气,mit 送) vt. 把 ... 送给/交托;犯罪;做错事 1402

cooperate vi. 合作、配合;协力 4053

correlate vi. 使互相关联 5338

collaborate vi. 合作;勾结、通敌 6438

concise adj. 简明的,简洁的 16558

后跟

  1. 元音或 h,简写成 co-
  2. 跟 l, 同化成 col-
  3. 跟 r, 同化成 cor-
  4. 其他情况,同化成 con-

为什么可以同化

  • m, n, l, r 发音相似

s,t, d 辅音互相转化的证据

conclude -> conclusion

decide -> decision

convert -> conversion

permit -> permission

admit -> admission

eat -> -es/-e(obese、edible)

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前缀

  1. in-
  2. im-
  3. il-
  4. ir-
  5. i-

含义:

  1. 进入、进去(= in)
  2. 相反、否定(= not)
  3. 使动词(= en-)

词源学 in-

in- (1)

word-forming element meaning "not, opposite of, without" (also im-, il-, ir- by assimilation of -n- with following consonant, a tendency which began in later Latin), from Latin in- "not," cognate with Greek an-, Old English un-, all from PIE root *ne- "not."

in- (2)

element meaning "into, in, on, upon" (also im-, il-, ir- by assimilation of -n- with following consonant), from Latin in- "in," from PIE root *en "in."

In Old French (and hence in Middle English) this often became en-, which in English had a strong tendency to revert to Latin in-, but not always, which accounts for pairs such as enquire/inquire. There was a native form, which in West Saxon usually appeared as on- (as in Old English onliehtan "to enlighten"), and some of those verbs survived into Middle English (such as inwrite "to inscribe"), but all now seem to be extinct.

词汇

income ( in 进入,come 来 ) n. 收入,收益,所得 1141

intact ( in = not, tact = touch 触、摸 ) adj. 完整的;原封不动的;未受损伤的 4679

import (in = in 进入, port 港口、码头) n. 输入;进口;进口货 4087。 export ( ex 出)

immoral (im = not, moral 道德的) adj. 不道德的;邪恶的;淫荡的 9992

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后缀

  1. -an
  2. -al
  3. -ar
  4. -am

含义

  1. 名词后缀,表示:人或物
  2. 形容词后缀,翻译成:... 的

词汇

artisan (artis 技术、技艺, -an 人) n. 工匠、技工

veteran (veter = year 年) n. 老兵;老手; adj. 经验丰富的

approval n. 赞成;批准;认可

artificial (arti 技术,fic 做,-al 的) adj. 人造的;仿造的;虚伪的

circular adj. 圆形的;循环的;间接的

 


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